Breast cancer takes one of the first places among oncological diseases in women. It is especially important that there is a marked increase in the number of cases and the rate of increase in malignant neoplasms of the mammary gland. Early detection and treatment of precancerous breast diseases is the best method for preventing the development of oncological pathology. This technique is called secondary cancer prophylaxis.
Precancerous diseases are subdivided into optional, i.e., those that can go into cancer and obligate, which will definitely go into cancer.
The most common are such precancerous diseases as fibroadenoma and fibrocystic breast disease.
Fibroadenoma of the breast
It is a benign tumor from the lobules of the glandular tissue of the mammary glands. As a result of the occurrence of hormonal imbalance against the background of chronic stress and inflammation in a woman’s body, the normal development of glandular tissue, which normally occurs in the middle of each menstrual cycle, fails. This is how immature cells appear that can self-organize. This self-organizing structure is called fibroadenoma. In terms of the risk of transition to breast cancer, they are extremely variable and the difference between different forms of fibroadenomas in the transition to neoplasm reaches 500%, i.e. 5 times more often.
The main symptoms
Often, the disease does not disrupt the woman’s usual lifestyle. The disease does not bring discomfort or pain, and is detected by chance during a standard examination, by palpation of the chest by a specialist.
The formation can be detected by the woman herself: upon self-examination, a small round ball up to several centimeters in diameter is felt. It does not cause pain, is not welded to the surrounding tissues, and is not visually detectable. However, this is his insidiousness.
That is why self-prophylactic examinations are so important. Every month, on the same day of the cycle, a woman should carefully examine her breasts, paying attention to its size, symmetry, condition of the nipples and breast skin. The examination should follow a standardized procedure, that is, according to the same scheme. When changes appear, it is imperative to consult with a specialist.
Based on the size of the fibroadenoma, treatment tactics are formed. If there are many small fibroadenomas, a conservative approach is recommended, as trauma to the breast increases the risk of breast cancer by 12%. The arsenal of conservative treatment includes antihomotoxic and photoimmunotherapy. The main method of treating benign lesions larger than 20 mm is surgery. It is necessary to remove the tumor without waiting for its degeneration into a malignant process. Currently, the treatment of fibroadenoma includes organ-preserving surgery with the imposition of a cosmetic suture, which allows you to solve the problem without violating the aesthetics of the female body.
Fibrocystic breast disease
This pathology is the most common breast disease in women of childbearing age. The disease is usually provoked by the uncontrolled intake of hormonal contraceptives, stress, abortion and other reasons that aggressively affect the female body.
Symptoms characteristic of mastopathy:
Swelling and induration of the mammary glands.
feeling of heaviness and soreness.
Discharge from the nipples of clear and sometimes colostrum-like fluids.
Typically, these symptoms are associated with the menstrual cycle and worsen the manifestations of premenstrual syndrome. With the progression of the pathology, pain and discomfort appear in the intermenstrual period.
treatment of fibrocystic breast disease
The main treatment for this disease is conservative therapy (vitamin therapy, hepatoprotectors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, herbal medicine). Adequate rest and sleep, taking vitamins will stabilize the hormonal background, reduce the intensity of the distress syndrome. However, in the vast majority of cases, nonspecific therapy is not enough. Taking into account the condition and severity of the disease, drugs are prescribed that can slow down or even stop the development of mastopathy, as well as a course of ozone therapy (injection of ozone mixtures into the cyst pointwise). The drugs that stop aggressive forms of mastopathy with a high proliferative potential include antihomotoxic drugs that are administered intramammary to enhance neurotrophic function, mistletoe drugs, as well as the technology of photodynamic therapy and photoimmunotherapy).
The method of photodynamic therapy consists in taking a photosensitizer, which selectively accumulates in inflammatory cells and in the subsequent exposure to monochromatic light with a wavelength of 662 nm. Regression of active proliferating tissues is noted, and the use of the preparation of mistletoe – Helixor – enhances the positive regenerative effect.
The use of these technologies is successfully replacing hormonal drugs that are actively used to treat FCM.